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观点 | 奥斯卡奖提名屡遭诟病,区块链或能改变现状_LibraNews_服务于区块链创新者

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今年的电影颁奖季终于过去了,但不幸的是,回顾过去几周,我们发现英国电影学院奖(BAFTA)和奥斯卡金像奖(Oscars)提名的多样性问题依然存在。

观点 | 奥斯卡奖提名屡遭诟病,区块链或能改变现状_LibraNews_服务于区块链创新者

尽管在2015年抵制“白人奥斯卡”(OscarsSoWhite)后倡导包容,还是在娱乐圈掀起轩然大波,因为20个演员提名中只有饰演哈莉特(Harriet)的辛西娅·埃里沃(Cynthia Erivo)一个黑人演员。值得注意的是,西班牙演员安东尼奥·班德拉斯也获得了提名,但根据好莱坞的标准,他并不算是有色人种。2020年奥斯卡奖也没有任何女性导演提名。

Blockchain.News和其他平台最近发表了一些文章推动将区块链技术应用到投票系统中以提高其透明度和信任度。我们收到了一些读者的提问,询问是否可以将其应用到奥斯卡提名系统中去。

在了解了奥斯卡是如何提名之后:答案是简短而肯定的,区块链技术确实可以用于加强这一过程,但不幸的是,人们可能并不喜欢这样的方式。

 

提名是如何产生的

 

在我们讨论区块链如何改进奥斯卡提名制度之前,我们需要看看它是如何运作的。下面总结一下决定一部电影或表演者能否获得提名的复杂过程。

奥斯卡提名的投票过程涉及8000多名奥斯卡成员,以及数百部合格的电影、表演者和制作人才。获得奥斯卡会员资格最简单的方法是以前被提名过,但是那些符合标准的人也可以申请——标准是基于该部门的历史和资历,或者是由现有的成员提名。

会员将在25个特定的类别中投票,例如,只有导演才能投票给最佳导演提名,只有演员才能投票给最佳演员等。当然,所有成员都可以投票选出最佳影片。

选票被分发给投票的成员,这些成员可以根据他们的个人的喜好在他们相应的类别中对五位提名者进行排名。

投票结束后,选票会被送往会计巨头普华永道会计师事务所(PwC)(80多年来,普华永道一直负责邮寄选票和制表的工作)。由普华永道(PwC)将找出那个神奇的数字,也就是每个类别中自动将潜在提名人变成正式提名人的投票数。

为了确定这个神奇的数字,普华永道会计师事务所将某个特定类别收到的选票总数除以可能被提名者总数再加1。正如曼塔尔弗洛斯(MentalFloss)所解释的那样,“一个简单的例子是,将600张最佳男演员类别的潜在选票除以6(5张可能被提名者加上1张),从而使得100张类别选票的神奇数字成为正式的被提名者。”

在这个估计需要1700个小时的过程中,计票仍然是手工完成的,并根据选民的第一选择开始计算,直到有人达到那个神奇的数字。例如,如果布拉德·皮特(Brad Pitt)在好莱坞的《曾几何时》(Once Upon a Time)中的表演第一个达到了那个神奇的数字,那么将他列为第一选择的选票就会全部被搁置,只剩下四个最佳男演员的名额。

获得第一名选票最少的演员将被自动淘汰,这些选票将根据第二名的选择重新分配(尽管仍在竞选的演员保留他们在第一轮中计算出的选票)。计票工作仍在继续,演员或其他类别的演员获得重新分配的选票,直到所有五个位置都被填满。

 

区块链代表协调,而不是多样性

 

上述提名过程中,区块链技术可以加强的最明显的方面是普华永道所做的协调工作。

如上所述,提名的制表过程需要普华永道会计师事务所花费1700小时左右,费用当然由奥斯卡(the Academy)承担。普华永道实际上是这部剧的秘密明星,他们投入了大部分工作,如果奥斯卡(the Academy)采用一种利用区块链技术的投票系统,甚至都不需要他们的参与。

普华永道会计师事务所采用传统审计的方式处理选票的制表工作,这需要在制表期结束时对其会计分类账上的选票进行确认并对偏好进行排序。如上所述,普华永道仍然是手工计算的,这不仅耗时,还可能导致人为错误,并要求每个人都相信他们是公正地计算数据的。我们在这里声明Blockchain.News尊重普华永道的诚信,但我们只想说,没有人会重新计票,也没有人会去核实四大会计师事务所的说法是否正确。

从理论上讲,区块链技术解决了几乎所有的问题,它可以立即提供不可变的事务记录,并且自动流程可以再次瞬间确定提名的排名。

Medium上发表的一篇文章指出,“由于其分布式分类账技术,区块链技术消除了将会计信息输入多个数据库的需要,也消除了审计师协调不同分类账的需要,从而节省了大量时间,并且大大降低了人为错误的风险。”

观点 | 奥斯卡奖提名屡遭诟病,区块链或能改变现状_LibraNews_服务于区块链创新者

 

更进一步

 

正如导言中所提到的,在2015年的“白人奥斯卡”(OscarsSoWhite)运动之后,有一股推动包容的力量。该运动的发起者阿普里尔·瑞温(April Reign)认为,虽然状况发生了一些改变,但改变的速度还不够快。她说:“2015年我发起“白人奥斯卡”(OscarsSoWhite)时,奥斯卡的成员有92%的白人,和75%的男性。现在奥斯卡已经稍微改善了这些数字,现在它的会员是84%的白人和68%的男性。所以昨天并不是一个惊喜。当我看到这些提名时,我很失望,因为有这么多有才华的电影人不能得到同行的承认和认可。”

斯派克·李(Spike Lee)在接受英国广播公司(BBC)采访时,也对提名缺乏多样性提出了批评。他在采访中主要讨论了流媒体服务,他说,虽然小玩家在不断变化,但守门人还是保持不变,且阻碍了包容。

虽然我可以提供一系列理由来解释为什么他们会有这种感觉,但我既没有资格也不想深入探究由大多数好莱坞明星的言辞而非实际行动所引以为傲的交叉多样性的混乱局面。虽然有充分的理由支持多元化和包容行动,但不幸的是,有大量证据表明,好莱坞大多数人对世界持有一种非常激进的极左观点,而且往往过于清醒。

还有一点也很重要,那就是提名的空缺只有这么多,而“奥斯卡”(the Academy)作为一个机构并没有真正做任何事情——投票权只不过是这个觉醒的群体的个人品味和偏好的平均值。事实上,这也是导演们的错,因为他们的投票没有女性被提名,而仅仅只有一个合格的黑人演员被提名。

最终建议:如果没有每个种族和性别的完全平等代表,提名将仍然是不公平的。然而,在这一点上,真正的问题似乎是,尽管多元化的行动成功地增加了少数族裔的代表性,但投票结果与好莱坞社会科学专业学生所认为的方式并不相关。

如果不进一步讨论好莱坞的期望是否现实,区块链在这里如何应用?使用区块链,可以跟踪和公开每个成员的投票习惯,并准确了解他们提名的人。虽然这会让选举透明化,但也会让选民陷入一场例行的好莱坞政治迫害,这可能会不自觉地影响投票,并导致人们投票支持最能体现当前政治时代精神的电影。这并不是一个真正的解决方案,因为哪些电影获得提名是对一种非常主观的艺术形式的非常主观的观点的顶点,而且,鉴于好莱坞在现实世界的问题上表现出的缺乏克制,这些问题太复杂,无法用一句话来概括,这将使选民们面对一个主观批评的世界。

免责声明:本文转载自互联网,经授权后发布,版权归原作者所有,转载请联系原作者并获许可。文章观点仅代表作者本人,不代表Libra资讯立场。若内容涉及投资建议,仅供参考勿作为投资依据。投资有风险,入市需谨慎。

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