穆长春:央行数字货币是人民币数字化 坚持币花不炒|穆长春_LibraNews_LibraNews网

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  守正出新 金融科技在创新与规范中寻求平衡

  金融时报

  本报见习记者徐贝贝

  近年来,大数据、人工智能等科技应用与金融的深度融合趋势愈发明显,对实体经济和金融体系产生了深刻影响。其在提高金融服务效率的同时,也对传统金融体系和金融监管构成挑战。

  平衡好风险和创新的关系已经成为全球金融监管面临的共同课题。

  随着金融供给侧结构性改革深入推进,我国金融体系稳健运行,风险总体可控。不过,受到经济金融环境愈发复杂多变、外部冲击等因素影响,金融领域风险有所暴露,金融科技应用带来的风险隐患也愈发受到各方关注。

  金融科技带来的挑战是多方面的。中国互联网金融协会秘书长陆书春在“2019中国金融学会学术年会暨中国金融论坛年会”上表示,对于金融机构而言,一是面临着组织机构、组织管理、业务流程的调整甚至再造,同时需要适应数字化时代的决策要求;二是银行需要破解内部条块利益冲突问题,建立适应数字化转型的考核和激励机制;三是相较于传统业务模式,金融科技应用还可能产生新的合规问题,比如新技术应用场景适当性、线上贷款合作合规等;四是金融机构可能面临IT架构适应性问题;五是金融机构尤其是中小金融机构面临人才短缺问题。

  “金融科技又一次改变了银行业的科技赛道。”中国工商银行信息科技业务总监吕仲涛表示,当前,银行业已经进入以金融科技广泛应用为基础的智慧银行阶段。在这一阶段,推动金融科技规范发展,必须做到坚守服务实体经济的初心,坚守不发生系统性风险的底线。

  吕仲涛谈到,金融科技为银行注入新动力的同时,确实给银行安全保障体系带来挑战。信息系统安全必须对经济金融安全发展起到托底作用。对于在科技创新发展中如何保障信息安全,工商银行多年来积累的经验表明,一是要坚持以信息科技变革引领银行再造;二是坚持自主研发理念:三是坚持安全生产第一底线;四是坚持科技与业务融合发展;五是坚持深化改革、优化管理。

  在防范化解金融风险的大背景下,加强对金融科技的监管尤为重要。对于监管部门而言,如何平衡好创新和规范发展是当下必须考虑的问题。

  我国金融科技首份全面、科学的发展规划已于今年8月份出炉。中国人民银行印发《金融科技(FinTech)发展规划(2019-2021年)》(以下简称《规划》),对于金融科技创新发展和加强监管都有着墨。《规划》提到,到2021年建立健全我国金融科技发展的“四梁八柱”,实现金融科技应用先进可控、金融服务能力稳步增强、金融风控水平明显提高、金融监管效能持续提升、金融科技支撑不断完善、金融科技产业繁荣发展。

  发展方向已经明确,金融科技监管框架也渐渐明晰。《规划》提出,要正确处理安全与发展的关系,坚决守住不发生系统性金融风险的底线;建立健全监管基本规则体系,增强金融监管的专业性、统一性和穿透性等。中国人民银行科技司司长李伟表示,传统的监管模式难以完全适应金融科技的飞速发展,必须要探索数字化监管。目前,央行正在不断摸索监管科技的应用,循序渐进提高自身监管能力。

  近日,金融科技监管迈出重要一步。中国人民银行支持在北京市率先开展金融科技创新监管试点,探索构建符合我国国情、与国际接轨的金融科技创新监管工具,引导持牌金融机构在依法合规、保护消费者权益的前提下,运用现代信息技术赋能金融提质增效,营造守正、安全、普惠、开放的金融科技创新发展环境。

  据李伟介绍,在监管模式上,我国金融科技创新监管工具引入社会监督和行业自律,对金融科技创新应用全生命周期实施柔性监管,在保护消费者权益的前提下,通过提供一个风险可控的真实市场,允许金融机构探索创新产品模式,及时发现和规避产品缺陷和风险隐患。虽与国际接轨,但我国“金融科技创新监管工具”在设计目标、参与者、监管模式等方面与“监管沙盒”仍存在显著差异。例如,在中国,要“入盒”必须为持牌机构;“出盒”后纳入正常产品进行监管,而不视为金融科技创新产品。

  此外,金融消费者权益保护也需要高度重视。陆书春表示,数据安全与隐私保护是金融科技发展中不可回避的问题。当前,消费者数据被过度采集、非法共享、随意滥用等问题依然存在。负责任、守底线是金融科技必须遵循的原则。

  值得关注的是,近期热度高涨的数字货币如果在未来广泛应用,将不可避免对金融体系产生深刻影响。中国人民银行数字货币研究所所长穆长春透露,从2014年启动数字货币研究至今,央行数字货币(DC/EP)已经基本完成了顶层设计、标准制定、测试等工作。下一步,要合理选择试点验证地区、场景和服务范围,不断优化和丰富数字人民币功能,稳妥推进数字化形态、法定货币的出台研究。他进一步强调,央行研发的数字货币实质上是人民币的数字化,要坚持“币花不炒”。谈及如何监管比特币、以太坊等加密资产,穆长春表示,依旧要遵循央行等七部委此前发布的《关于防范代币发行融资风险的公告》明确的监管要求。

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