中国信通院何宝宏:金融仍然是区块链第一大应用场景,5大演进方向需要关注_LBRCHINA_站在未来看现在

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来源:人民网,作者:夏晓伦

 

10月24日,中国信息通信研究院云计算与大数据研究所所长何宝宏在由中共中央党校出版社与中国信息通信研究院联合主办的“打造区块链新引擎助力产业新升级论坛暨《读懂区块链》新书发布会”上表示,在推动区块链产业的发展,尤其是推动区块链在数字代币以外领域的应用,政策进入密集跟产业推动发展的新的历史阶段,政策也在根据市场的变化不断调整。金融仍然是区块链第一大应用场景。政务应用也在快速发展。这一年的变化主要表现在以下几个方面:

 

论文量持续上升,生态稳步构筑

 

何宝宏表示,从创新角度看,过去一年发表论文持续稳定大幅上升。根据相关数据显示,从2017、2018年之后全球围绕区块链技术的创新的论文呈现爆发式的增长,北京邮电大学是相关的学术论文发表最多的机构。

据何宝宏介绍,中国信通院自2015年开始系统研究区块链,目前已有407家国内外单位相继加入,发展成为全球前三的区块链行业组织。金融方面的区块链的应用仍然是全球关注的重点,仅从行业组织的规模和行业组织的会员的数量变化能够感觉到正在发生着比较大的变化。

 

投融资整体回落 我国区块链企业规模总体趋稳

 

何宝宏表示,在区块链投融资方面,2019年同比下滑了30%,公有链及加密货币等领域的投融资超过了联盟链或者许可链的投资。据CB Insights统计数据,2019年区块链行业融资金额为 27.9 亿美元,同比去年下滑 35%。2020年上半年因疫情原因投融资数量处于低位;同时7月份DEFI概念爆火,投融资数额增长较快,截至2020年8月,投资金额为22.97亿美元。加密货币相关公司的融资额远大于许可链公司。据 CB Insights 统计数据,2015-2019 年,以加密货币的管理、托管、交易等为主业的公司所获得的融资额为 84.2 亿美元,是许可链公司所获融资额(12.9 亿美元)的 6.5 倍。

现阶段,我国区块链企业的规模总体上趋于稳定,根据备案的情况及中国信通院相关的统计报告显示,我国区块链备案企业数811家,2018年是新增区块链企业数量的高峰,2019年起新增区块链企业数量大幅下降,基本处于人员和基础的储备阶段。

地方政府积极投身区块链发展热潮 政务领域应用快速增长

”地方政府过去一年也积极投身到区块链的发展热潮。当前,所有省份均启动区块链相关布局,一线城市居多,反应最快。2020年上半年,全国推出了区块链相关政策,数量已经超过了去年的总和。2019年至2020年Q1,各级政府部门涉及区块链技术的文件达到73份,远高于2017和2018年。26%的文件突出加强区块链技术创新,出台措施鼓励产业发展;74%的文件鼓励区块链技术应用与实体经济发展紧密结合。然而,在疫情期间。很多地方仍然是区块链政策“口号式”引导为主,落地推动为辅,个别监管为补。引导性政策占据主导地位,约为已发布政策的80%,监管性政策较少,仅有7.6%。“何宝宏在采访中提到。

从区块链政策地域分布来看,仍以沿海、一线地区发布政策居多(如:北上广),内陆地区城市也希望抓住区块链发展机遇,推动本地经济实现新的增长(如:贵州、重庆、四川)

他认为,除政策、政府的行政之外,政务区块链这一年增加非常快,从地域来看,东部和南部省市积极布局,率先起步;从场景来看,尚在打基础筑平台阶段,场景还是相对单一;从时间来看,前期小步探索,2019年后呈现快速增长;根据中国信通院云大所团队正在做的工作,能够直觉的感觉到2020年的增长会非常快,尤其政务区块链在跨地域跨部门的政务共享方面。

 

区块链技术架构保持稳定,步入技术优化改进期

 

区块链技术架构保持稳定,2018、2019年白皮书里面的功能框架划分未发生变化,已经进入国际标准组织的基本要求。何宝宏强调,基于核心技术(加密算法、对等网络、共识机制、智能合约、账本存储),区块链整体功能架构为技术创新迭代提供基础。区块链技术演进将会在核心技术层面不断优化完善,但是还有一些具体的技术需要改良和优化,包括区块链的互联互通问题、安全问题、可控问题及性能如何进一步提高,规模如何扩展,让更多的用户能够接进来互联互通;随着业务场景的多元化,涌现的热点技术会不断丰富区块链技术生态,稳步上升。

 

区块链技术5大演进方向

 

对于区块链技术过去一年取得的进步或者变化,何宝宏表示5大演进方向需要关注。

更快速:目前以TPS为衡量指标,主要从优化共识机制角度提升,当前技术能力参差不齐,较好的实现可达到万级。整体性能的TPS与交易延迟能够支撑当前业务需求的两倍以上,向混合型共识算法演变。

更庞大:随着节点数量增多,需要交换的信息增多,系统负载增大,性能有所下降,当前规模无法支撑百级。需要实现大规模节点高效共识、增强可扩展性是当前共识研究的重要发展方向,可支撑千级规模。

更互通:链级存在数据孤岛现象,无法互联互通严重阻碍区块链网络规模化发展。技术层面保障交易的原子性、正确性、事务性。并亟需标准化以实现多链协同,实现互联互通

更安全:区块链底层链功能愈发完善的同时,但区块链安全存在一定隐患,这是长期的问题,而安全问题是必然要解决的。需要不断加强应用安全预警、漏洞扫描、合约代码审计验证等安全手段

更可控:技术快速发展与创新后,可控可管逐渐被业界关注。监管,涉及到很多资产,涉及到很多用户的隐私,所以基于区块链监管的融合,参与方身份可控、交易可控、监管可达,与核心技术自主可控成为刚需。

 

区块链赋能实体经济的4大场景

 

在何宝宏看来,伴随区块链技术的发展,其应用场景更加深入,从商品溯源、司法存证、政务、供应链金融、贸易金融、社会公益不断拓展到工业管理、能源电力、数据交易、公共资源交易、数字身份、医疗健康。随着区块链技术的发展,尤其在性能、规模、安全性、应用场景不断提升。

目前区块链赋能实体经济可分为生产协同、流通管理、产融管理、数字金融四大场景。离金融近的成熟度高一些,离金融远点的应用成熟度低一些,因为区块链就是从金融来的。但是整体来看,区块链跟实体经济的融合还处于早期探索阶段,除了产融对接这种场景相对比较成熟之外,其他的大部分从落地来说还处于试点阶段,整体成熟度相对较弱。后续需要继续优化技术,扩展区块链的应用场景。目前我们主要围绕一些行业或者某些大型企业来展开,生态的建设问题,协同效应没有显现出来,孤岛比较明显,需要做跨链,提高应用的规模,从链到网要连成一张网,形成一体化的生态。生产环境下,目前主要集中在企业间关键业务信息的贡献,产融结合的金融赋能等等。需要进一步发展垂直应用覆盖从物到人的全产业链制造—流通—产融过程。

最后,何宝宏指出,区块链在技术方面及应用方面都取得了长足的发展,但是也看到还有很多问题期待行业共同努力解决。

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