观点:央行数字货币与加密货币存在本质区别,二者之间更具竞争性_LBRCHINA_站在未来看现在

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近年来,人们对中央银行数字货币的兴趣呈上升趋势,中国积极地试点DCEP(其数字人民币版本),世界上一些最有名的中央银行(包括美联储和欧洲中央银行)对发行央行数字货币(CBDC)发表评论,这表明世界各地的中央银行都在考虑提供通用中央银行数字货币的利弊。

观点:央行数字货币与加密货币存在本质区别,二者之间更具竞争性_LBRCHINA_站在未来看现在

图片来源:Pixabay

在最近的一项调查中,大约80%的中央银行正在考虑实施CBDC,并且一半以上的央行已经开始进行试验性试验。

紧要关头,以太坊和比特币等加密货币已经度过了市场经济风暴,既在零售用例中用作机构对冲,又在计算资源上采用了新的哲学方法。 在COVID-19期间,经济正在以根本方式进行重塑,接下来可能会有中央银行支持的数字零售货币。

随着加密货币的兴起,任何新的中央银行数字货币的自然比较就是其标准。 然而,在许多重要的方面,许多提议的中央银行数字货币实现方式完全与加密货币原理背道而驰。 实际上,采用加密货币的主要论点一直是,它们将为那些不想被迫成为中央银行支持的现金的数字替代品的人提供对冲。

第一个也是最重要的区别是,加密货币是由国际分布参与者的节点通过网络激励来支撑的,而中央银行则有一个中心目标:针对一个国家或最多一个国家集团的公共政策。 这产生了关键的差异。

这些中央银行中的任何一个都倾向于将重点放在就业上,而观察到的工资通胀的变化被视为次要的。 在COVID-19期间,情况就是如此,欧洲央行和美联储都在努力放松对通货膨胀的限制,同时力争为其本国提供“充分就业”。

其次,CBDC不会像加密货币那样固有地尊重隐私和自行托管的想法。 中央银行与最努力执行反洗钱规定的税务机关处于同一战线,它们的关系类似于警官和检察官之间或大学中不同部门之间的关系。 根据这些机构的法规建立的CBDC面临的关键政策问题是谁应该访问数据,而不是数据是否应该存在。

可以很容易地看到,强制性元数据附加到CBDC选择性地向某些机构披露的每笔交易中。 实际上,只有加密货币才能让您在无边界障碍下进行交易,而不必强迫自己进入一个国家或另一个国家的监管体制,从而允许您给予你要分享多少有关自己的数据的能力。

默认假设是人们将使用隐私保护技术的人推定为从事犯罪活动(美国司法部最近对此表示反对),以及许多相同国家最近提倡限制端到端加密,推进数字中央银行货币应该使人们在忠实的政府将如何对待隐私以及人们以他们选择的方式进行金融交易的能力方面稍作妥协。

最后,另一重点是加密货币是经过相对考验的。有多种原因可以跨多种攻击面攻击底层系统:许多人用来交易的交易所中的漏洞,自行托管问题和重用后的钱包地址标识问题,全链攻击的可能性(例如51%攻击)。

这些系统已达到如今的规模的事实给人留下了深刻的印象,因为加密货币的背后没有军队或对使用武力的垄断。中央银行的数字货币在国家不容忍的情况下呈现出更大的攻击面——数百年来,对纸币的保护已经反复出现,而来自竞争对手和以经济为动机的黑客将进行更多以网络安全为重点的沉重攻击。

不同于一种以博弈论为基础的激励机制演变,国家几乎将立即面临一系列攻击,同时将合法性和信任借给数字货币可能还不值得。毕竟,正如大规模黑客攻击所显示的那样,美国各州在保护有关内部员工和关键服务(例如选举服务器或政治敏感的电子邮件收件箱)的关键信息方面遇到了挣扎——向其中添加资金和资金流增加了国家疏忽的可能性。

随着加密货币和央行数字货币的兴起,将两者关联起来可能很诱人。但是,必须枚举两者之间的重要而本质的区别。在某些人看来,创建新的中央银行数字货币与加密货币的成功有关,但实际上,与协作相比,它们之间更具竞争性。不可避免地创建和分配中央银行数字货币是加密货币存在的一个关键目的——不仅是作为金融对冲,而且也是技术性对冲。

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