先河系统张日和 : Filecoin首先是一个分布式存储解决方案,其次才是区块链_巴比特_服务于区块链创新者

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8月22日-23日,“共享新机遇——2020全球区块链算力大会暨新基建矿业峰会”在成都举行。本次大会由成都市新经济委、成都市科技局及成都市成华区人民政府指导,由成都市成华区新经济和科技局 、成都市成华区投促局、巴比特、链节点、印比特主办。

在大会上,先河系统CEO&创始人张日和带来题为《通证学与Filecoin案例分析》的主题分享。在演讲中他分享了区块链的三阶应用、通证学的框架和构建理论支持以及先河在Filecoin的布局。

以下为演讲实录。

先河系统张日和 : Filecoin首先是一个分布式存储解决方案,其次才是区块链_巴比特_服务于区块链创新者

很高兴来到成都。今天给大家的演讲主题是通证学与Filecoin案例分析。区块链发展到现在11年了,区块链没有跟实体经济落地,但是为什么全球区块链这么热?我想进行一个阶段性的总结。

这里简单介绍一下我们公司,先河意在开创先河。我们是十年的公司,有六年分布式存储经验,三年IPFS、Filecoin发展经验。我们在Filecoin里面耕耘得比较深。我演讲主题分四个部分,前面两个讲区块链是什么,还有通证学。然后是Filecoin的案例分析以及现在Filecoin的布局。

区块链是什么?大家对区块链有很多不同的认识,这是我对区块链的定义。这个定义比较长,但是中心词就是区块链是一个可信任的信息系统。怎么制作出来的?是集约化的代码证明。全球都在探寻区块链怎么落地,落地是群体激励协作。今天要谈的项目是Filecoin,区块链本质是一个特定的人类经济活动的价值计算方案,中间就是信任。区块链是一个信任的系统,分上下两部分。可以理解为上面是人类活动,下面是价值计量的信息系统。中间是信任,区块链是信任系统,在可信的系统里面做经济价值活动。

人类谈论价值很多年了,我们讲价值创造跟价值分配。再往上走就是一些非常底层的一级学科,下面是这个形式化系统是怎么制造出来的,就是区块链的技术。

 

区块链可分为三阶应用

基于这个定义我对区块链进行一个分类,分一二三阶。分别对应信息互联网、价值互联网和秩序互联网。一阶就是降低交易成本应用,二阶就是群体激励,第三部分就是秩序。

这里用一个工程视觉的分类,侧面还是刚才讲区块链有信息、价值、秩序互联网。正面分两种,一个是有币区块链和无币区块链。区块链应用也可以用在联盟上面。通证学是新的价值体系。比如比特币网络,还有以太坊,还有Filecoin网络。区块链的技术都可以应用在第一第二第三跟政治政府系统,旧的价值体系也可以应用区块链技术来做,比如我们谈到的蚂蚁区块链、京东区块链包括腾讯区块链,都可以在第一第二第三产业和政府产业。

但是新的价值体系正在萌芽,比如说比特币、以太坊,比如Filecoin的案例,他的价值分配制度跟新的制度不一样。第三讲一个产品的分类,也是用三纬分析。把信息所在的空间,从物理空间,从线下到链上整个过程,然后链下再到链上。链下链上协同得比较多,就是链下业务到链上来。Filecoin是全球第一个链下链上协同有实质生产的项目。一个32G的上去不可能存在区块上面,压缩之后做上去,这是全球第一个成功的案例,其他看不到。更复杂是把线下的信息没有失真地存到链上。

正面就是分成应用链、中间件和底层,Filecoin是应用链。底层就是一些IT产业的互联网的分法。

从刚才三维分析框架可以看清楚的看到这个区块链信息的传递路径从线下到链上的过程。线下是物理世界,链上是形式化世界。这里就有一个信息失真,中间有一个代理人。这个非常关键。生产数据提到链上的时候存在代理人,有可能失真。所以区块链应用在很多的农产品溯源跟食物溯源都会遇到代理人的可靠性,这是链下验证节点的问题。虽然这个问题现在可以用多签解决,但是也不是很完美。

第二阶段就是可容错,线下信息上来肯定有失真的,所以需要补错机制。区块链特征并不是什么不可删除不可篡改,信任才是根本。信任可以从形式化信任过度到实质信任。刚才讲的是区块链感性认识。

下面讲的通证学,我本身同时从事学术研究跟商业实践,在Filecoin里面。区块链发展了11年了,我想对区块链产生的实体进行一个命名,我取名叫做通证体。就是通证加实体,像公司一样。通证体是区块链连接人与事的主体,今天在矿业大会讨论的比特币网络包括Filecoin都是通证体。通证学就是研究通证体的学问。

通证这个定义是流通、凭证、价值,通证有多义性,有非常多的意义。通证体的通证定义是有限货币,是价值交换,有生产属性。外生角度有金融属性,一个通证体在以太坊,以太这个币有多重属性,用以太买电视的时候是生产行为,在交易所用法币买卖以太的时候是金融属性的行为,这是一词多义。

先河系统张日和 : Filecoin首先是一个分布式存储解决方案,其次才是区块链_巴比特_服务于区块链创新者

这里是我们把通证学理了一个框架,这里写了一本书。通证分三个学问,市场共识、治理共识和算法共识。刚才那个漏斗图下面部分是通证计算学,要解决算法共识的问题。通证经济学解决市场共识,通证治理学解决治理的问题。通证学跟很多学科有交叉,下面讲的是整个通证学的理论和构造。通证学非常交叉,要跟金融法学、复杂性、经济学、哲学统统都有交叉。

这里讲了通证制度,这个概念是我自己提的概念,就是说跟资本主义制度有什么不一样的地方,这个图是一个表达资本主义制度。整个资本市场是法币来计量生产消费和金融。但是通证制度就多了一个代币,中间封装了一层,法币买代币,代币再买消费。这个跟资本主义市场不一样。三个市场是分离的,在市场上很多人讨论金融不为实体落地,这是资本主义市场很大的问题,就是股票炒得高低跟这个企业的盈利状态没有什么关系。从制度来讲这是一种新型的制度,现在问你一个问题,就是比特币网络属于谁的?我想没有敢说是属于他的。但是你钱包的比特币,你的矿机都是私有的,这是新的现象。就是私有产权跟共有产权的混合,通证制度是一个混合的产权,这是新的范畴,以前从来没有遇到过,这是比特币慢慢发展到现在区块链才有的,这是一个新的共有产权制度。

 

通证经济体是复杂系统

通证经济体是一个复杂的系统,一个复杂系统有三个特性。开放、涌现跟演进,以后开放可以聚天下的英才,有天下英才就能涌现不同的思想。有涌现性的东西才有演进。通证体里面有博弈,今天大家很多人关心Filecoin,涉及到很多的通证体里面的治理集团的问题,有很多思考。

从这个博弈里面长期的发展会出现意识形态,任何一个经济活动都会催生经济形态,比如印度种姓制度跟印度教是配合的,中国儒家思想跟儒家是配合的,包括资本主义制度跟消费主义配合是一样的。通证主义也会有他的意识形态。这个意识形态就是个人主义跟集体主义的形态。这里就催生了,比如现在互联网动不动封杀谁都是巨头说了算。未来物极必反,有人会起来。现在做的这个事情都是一种开放的,大家都可以参与的行为。

这七个命题不讲了。最后有一个更远的未来,任何一件事情都有一个远景有一个理想。这里讲Filecoin的一个案例,刚才讲一些理论大家听着比较枯燥。

Filecoin案例是一样的,有三个市场,生产、金融跟代币市场。生产市场是买卖双方,用代币买卖。代币怎样分发。经济学模型,生产属性是存储市场跟检索市场,然后通过铸币权分金融属性。通过法币买代币,代币再去生产、金融、消费三个市场。

Filecoin商业模式首先是一个分布式存储解决方案,其次才是区块链,区块链是激励方案,计量大家的价值贡献。

这里讲Filecoin的技术演进,稳定性要求还有复制证明的迭代,还有一个最重大的Filecoin的问题,就是经济模型的设计,要激励相容,现在有比较大的风险。

先河系统张日和 : Filecoin首先是一个分布式存储解决方案,其次才是区块链_巴比特_服务于区块链创新者

后面讲讲我们先河在Filecoin的布局。先河两年连续参与IPFS的开发大会。这是我们代码贡献,在整个Filecoin里面我们是做得比较久的,从第一天开源做了很多技术分享,也提交了代码。在这里做得久一点点。目前的行为对于B端提供方案,提供算力机证明机存储机,我们都是分成架构,我们的算力机跟存储机都是分离的。算力永远做算力的事情,存储永远只会装。算力不会有折算,也不会也存储不够的行为。这是基础集群30T,我们单台一天能到3PB的算力。还有更大的,从30T到5PB不等,只要你投钱。

没有安全谈稳定没有意义,没有稳定谈效率也没有意义,没有安全稳定效率谈成本没有什么意义。这是我们做的BTO建设—移交、运维,主网上以后还有一个财务。

翻过高山,正遇江海。行过雪原,恰逢花期。谢谢大家。

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