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央行数字货币脚步声渐近 与物联网支付天然契合?|数字货币_LibraNews财经_LibraNews网

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  原标题:央行数字货币的“脚步声”渐近 与物联网支付天然契合? 

  一千年前,世界上第一张纸币“交子”诞生中国。一千年后,首个法定央行数字货币也或将在中国落地。

  在过去的几个月里,我国央行数字货币(DCEP)内测和试点消息的不断流出,DCEP的面貌日渐清晰,受到了前所未有的关注和热度。一时间,“重建全球清算体系”、“捍卫国家货币主权”、“终结美元霸权”等各种“史诗级”的点评横扫互联网。 

  而在近日,摩根大通在一份报告中指出,随着央行数字货币的想法开始受到各国重视,美国需要着重关注,否则可能会导致其地缘政治力量受损。

  那么,这个被前央数所所长姚前喻为“金融科技皇冠上的明珠”的央行数字货币,究竟有何历史意义?又会在哪些业务中快速推进呢?

央行数字货币脚步声渐近 与物联网支付天然契合?|数字货币_LibraNews财经_LibraNews网

  DCEP倒计时

  自1971年布雷顿森林体系瓦解之后,货币的价值便不在于可以兑换多少的金银,而在于其发行方—国家的信用背书,DCEP也一样。

  DCEP是以国家信用为价值支撑,本质上属于中央银行对公众发行的债务,以国家信用为价值担保,具有无限法偿性,可保证央行数字货币可有效发挥计价手段、交易媒介、流通手段、贮藏手段等货币功能。央行对其定位是代替现金(M0),采用的是“中央银行—商业银行“的双层运营体系,通过双层运营体系由商业银行通过电子钱包向终端用户提供数字货币存取等服务。

  同时,为了保证从发行、流通到回收的全生命周期的全程追溯和闭环可控,DCEP采用穿透式监管。同时,为了推动反腐、反洗钱、反恐怖融资等 KYC、AML 合规科技建设,央行与银行机构和第三方支付机构运用了大数据分析技术。

  简单来说,DCEP具有国家信用,与法定货币等值,其功能属性与纸钞完全一样,只不过是数字化形态。

  目前,DCEP的推广秉持从封闭测试到小范围场景封闭试点再到大范围推广,从简单的几个小范围特定场景,逐步向全领域推广的原则。与此同时,DCEP不设定技术路线,随着技术的迭代,不断进行完善DCEP的功能,体现央行与时俱进、包容性和开放性。

  另外,DCEP采用松耦合账户,按个人信息确认程度的不同,可分为四级账户,第四级账户可实现远程开户,但是对于支付的金额有限定。最严苛的是第一级账户,需柜签,无支付金额限制。

  而从网上流传的中国农业银行和中国建设银行账户内测照片来看,DCEP钱包主要功能包括扫码支付、汇款、收付款、碰一碰等,与银行电子账户日常功能基本相似。不过,与微信、支付宝等传统支付方式不同的是,DCEP具有具有“离线模式”和“可控匿名”两大特点,即用户可通过APP实现数字货币转移支付,且在交易过程中不需要了解对方的身份,只需通过APP验证数字货币。

  值得一提的是,据农行知情人士透露,人民银行和四大行,还有阿里和腾讯是央行数字货币内测的第一站,试点工作将在成都、苏州、雄安和深圳展开。零识区块链了解到,DCEP已在苏州开启内测,将交通补贴的50%通过央行数字货币的形式发放。而在雄安的试点推介名单中,以餐饮、零售业企业为主,包括麦当劳、星巴克、菜鸟驿站、京东无人超市等19家单位。接下来,DCEP将采用渐进式的推广方式,从四大行代发工资用户及公共服务场景入手,后续逐步拓展到互联网公司及运营商。

  弯车超道的最佳时期? 

  人民币的跨境使用最早可以追溯到上世纪90年代初,我国部分地区在与周边国家的边境贸易中开始出现使用人民币现金进行贸易结算的现象。但真正意义上的人民币国际化是从2008年国际金融危机爆发后开始的。2008年,全球金融危机爆发,对国际货币体系产生了深刻的影响,特别是美元流动性紧缺、金融市场波动加剧。而中国周边的一些国家央行希望通过与人民银行签署本币互换协议,以获得流动性支持,维护金融市场稳定。同时,随着中国在全球贸易和投资比重的持续增长,国内外企业希望通过人民币结算降低交易成本,避免汇率风险的意愿逐渐上升。 

  不过,在全球金融危机后,随着中国经济率先恢复,并逐渐成为世界经济增长的重要引擎,国际上使用人民币的需求显著增加。为此,我国消除政策障碍,积极推进人民币跨境使用便利化。2009年7月,人民银行推出面向港澳地区和东盟国家的跨境贸易人民币结算试点。自此,人民币国际化进入了加速阶段。人民币成为国际货币体系多元化进程中的新成员。

  直到2014年开始,人民币国际化的速度似乎显著放缓,突出表现为离岸市场上人民币存款停止增长,甚至有所下降,且人民币金融产品发行规模有所下降之上。显然,人民币国际化似乎已经进入一个“平台期”。

  而作为中国世界第二大经济体,人民币却在国际上的使用比例非常低。截至2019年,人民币在国际贸易结算中的份额占比是2.15%,在各国外汇储备中的份额占比是1.97%。相比美元、欧元、日元,它们已经在国际结算中占据80%,外汇储备也占到近90%。

  近十年来,人民币国家化这个“早产儿”已经进入瓶颈期。那么该如何把握住人民币国际化弯道超车的机遇?DCEP的推出具有重要的突破性意义。原因在于人民币跨境支付系统(CIPS)上线之前,人民币跨境清结算高度依赖美国的SWIFT系统和CHIPS。基于美国依赖SWIFT系统和CHIPS系统发动了若干次金融战争,所以依赖外国货币结算系统就会出现致命的缺陷。而基于互联网新技术,特别是区块链技术,推出全新的加密电子货币体系,无疑是一场货币体系的重大变革,可让货币结算的主动权掌握在自己手里。“DCEP可全面重塑金融业态,真正意义上实现‘资金流和信息流的融合’,为全球贸易提供更安全、可靠、智能化的新支付体系,进而带动产业向着‘新智能商业’模式加速转型。”火币大学校长于佳宁也曾表示。

  人类的货币史分三个阶段:第一个阶段是实物货币,最终形态是黄金,1816年形成了金本位制;第二个阶段是政府信用,即1944年确立的以美元为核心的布雷顿森林体系;第三个阶段就是数字货币,可以说,数字货币是大势所趋。 

  自今年来,包括法国、瑞典、韩国等多个国家央行都在加速研究央行数字货币,且有不少国家已经公布其央行数字货币测试计划或方案。据IBM和英国智库“官方货币与金融机构论坛”对全球23家央行开展的调查显示,诸多央行正考虑研究和发行“央行数字货币”,可由消费者使用的“央行数字货币”或将在未来五年内面世。而受疫情影响,预计各国央行数字货币的研究和开发进程也会随之加快。

  而桥水基金创始人达里奥在最新文章《正在改变的世界秩序》中提到,当前美国成立已经接近250年,虽然美元占全球支付和储备资产的比重仍在50%左右,但美国经济占全球的比重已经降至25%,而中国经济占全球的比重已经升至13%左右。这显示美国的经济霸权已经开始走下坡路,未来世界金融主导权东移有着历史必然性。因此,当前是我国推进人民币国际化和人民币参与国际定价权的最佳时机。

  与物联网支付有天然契合度?

  不少业内人士认为,DCEP在链下进行价值交换时,必须要联通链上信息的相关设备,从这一点来看,物联网技术的应用是不可替代的。 

  对此,数字法币研究社在《简析央行数字货币DCEP在物联网支付领域应用前景》一文指出,DCEP特别适用于物联网支付的场景。该研究社解释道,大规模的物联网经济活动会产生大量的交易,大量交易必然对流动性会产生很大的需求。在DCEP之前,可能承载物联网经济的几种流动性载体,都存在一些不足之处。而DC/EP 恰好是最容易接受和使用的货币流动载体。首先,DCEP是法定货币,不存在币价波动等虚拟货币的问题,也不存在第三方机构账户余额不能通用的问题。其次,DC/EP 是数字形态的法定货币,对机器而言,非常容易通过数字签名等方式实现交易,还可以实现单方或双方离线的交易,流通性非常好。再次,DC/EP 是松耦合的账户,机器通过内置符合央行认证要求的 DC/EP 钱包,就可以拥有 DC/EP 账户。

  同时,数字法币研究社还指出,物联网支付具有小额高频的特点,这恰恰是 DC/EP 适宜的交易场景。一方面,相比于第三方支付等传统支付方式,DCEP 没有交易手续费,这使得物联网支付的交易摩擦大为降低。另一方面,海量物联网设备会产生高频的交易。

  此外,数字法币研究社还认为,DCEP有助于防范物联网经济的金融风险,其还有可能帮助推进人民币国际化。相信随着数字经济的不断发展深化,DCEP 能够结合物联网和区块链,对大规模协作进行价值计量、价值分配、价值存储、价值结算,使得跨界的、公共事务的大规模协作成为可行、可信,变得高效。

  可以期待的是,DCEP将为全球贸易构建更安全、可靠、智能化的新支付体系,从而带动产业的智能化转型。值得警惕的是,在各国央行及Facebook等商业机构的“穷追猛打”下,中国不能松懈,应加劲推进。

央行数字货币脚步声渐近 与物联网支付天然契合?|数字货币_LibraNews财经_LibraNews网
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