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LibraNews专栏 | Libra白皮书2.0:雄心不变的“搅局者”_LibraNews_服务于区块链创新者

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4月16日晚,Libra2.0的白皮书发布了。经过10个月的“磨难”,最初阵容强大的Libra联盟已经“主动”瘦身,唯有Facebook依旧“雄心不减”。

通过对白皮书的研读我们可以联想到以下几点:

 

一、主动合规

 

Libra过去10个月的主要工作可能就是应对监管,笔者在于读者交流《企业级业务架构设计:方法论与实践》一书中的“战略房子”时,曾经以Libra举例,Libra应当具备的一项重要战略能力就是“游说能力”,要说服各主要拟发行地区的监管机构,这样才能有更好的运行环境。新版白皮书显然把合规提到了更高关注度,以此证明自己对现有金融体系的发展是“有益”的,而非让人不安的“颠覆”。

但是,从白皮书中对提升金融系统的可互操作性、可编程性、可升级等描述来看,这个没有银行牌照的潜在“超级银行”依然会给现有金融体系带来不小冲击,也使合规问题变得更为复杂,任何一个现有的主要银行几乎都是以实体形态,也就是境外分支机构面向当地监管的,但是Libra就像一只触角伸缩自如的“大章鱼”,让人很难简单察觉其活动范围。

 

二、超级稳定币

 

Libra正式确定了对单币种货币的稳定币支持方向,这看起来是从过去“一篮子”货币的超然地位下降到了单一货币的现实妥协,但实际上,并没有损害其“超级稳定币”的地位。

现在的货币体系中,各国货币间表面上是可以直接兑换的,但实际上还是以“世界货币”为居间进行兑换的,可以称为“世界货币”的主要是各国定为储备货币的外币,当然,最广泛的还是美元。

Libra支持单币种后,理论上可以扩展到对任意一种货币的兑换,也就是成了居间货币,而考虑到Libra的数字货币特点,它比美元的可获得性要高的多。当然,支持单币种兑换之后不排除造成Libra内含的价值分裂,比如,通过美元兑换获得的Libra,与通过比索等小币种兑换获得的Libra之间如何维持兑换关系,这会涉及到Libra自身的“染色”问题。

此外,Libra支持单币种后,依然会存在造成小币种货币消失的威胁,比如,在流通性良好的情况下,通过交易所,将小币种货币向世界级储备货币兑换的“冲动”还是会很强烈,尤其是在出现内部经济问题的地区,这可能会削弱此类地区应对危机的政策有效性,相关问题在传统货币理论中一直有讨论,就是外币对本国经济政策的影响。当然,这不是Libra造成的,只是Libra的数字化能力可能会继续放大这类问题。

 

三、特别的“监管者”

 

白皮书中最有趣的一点其实是放弃了未来向无许可系统发展的方向,这虽然是面向监管的一种负责任的态度,但是,天秤座协会(Libra Association)对虚拟钱包开发、社区开发、智能合约发布等方面更强的管理,实际上使它成为了一个跨境的特别“监管者”。读者都知道,在区块链世界,智能合约、各类基于区块链应用就相当于金融产品,而Libra负责任的管理,恰恰使其成为一个实际“监管者”,而且,利用不同地区监管政策差异的“地区套利”意识似乎会因此进一步增强,因为,它在发布产品时将更多地考虑这一问题,这也使它更像“大章鱼”了。

 

四、PK加速

 

去年旧版白皮书的发布使各国监管机构对数字货币的兴趣明显提升了一个档次,而这次新版白皮书“姿态”的下降,尤其是对单货币稳定币的支持,使得其与现有稳定币的差别进一步降低了,也使得监管通过的可能性上升了,这也意味着Libra不会停止发行的脚步,那么,一个之前被讨论过的问题也将再次被提及:法定货币与私人货币的竞争,这是在货币史也出现过的问题,算是这个问题的“数字化”吧,对此,不必争论什么,看“疗效”吧。

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