Vitalik:完全去中心化和“有限”中心化的好处,区块链做到两者兼具_LibraNews_服务于区块链创新者

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以太坊创始人Vitalik Buterin近日在推特上分享了有关去中心化和中心化的看法。完全的去中心化具有很高的价值,但“有限的”中心化同样有好处,Vitalik认为区块链做到了两者兼具。

以下是他在推特上分享的内容:

“昨天我谈到了完全去中心化的好处。 今天,我将讨论故意设计的“有限的”中心化的好处。

支持中心化的最佳论据通常是关于中心化的激励机制:假设1 百万人中的每一个人在某一件事的结果中都只有很小的一点权益,对结果的影响能力很小,那么他们将不在乎自己的这点影响(或更糟糕的是,容易被其他人附带的激励所引导) …但是,如果一个人在某一结果中的权益和影响力很大,他们将需要时间来学习,优化和利用规模经济来做出+执行良好的决策。

反对中心化的最佳论据是中心化的脆弱性,滥用权力的风险,较低的“巴士指数(bus factor)”等。

我们可以将两者(去中心化和中心化)的好处结合在一起吗? 好吧,区块链已经做到了。 思考一下区块的生产机制:基本上,每隔15秒我们随机选择一个“独裁者”,该独裁者完全控制一个区块所包含的交易(tx),从经济角度讲,他就是区块奖励的“完全边际要求者”。

这种体系结构实际上具有很多好处,并且是迄今为止我们所知道的所有针对贿赂/“暗地支付”的体系结构中最具弹性的结构。

矿工和交易发送者有时确实会彼此进行私下交易,但是好处非常低,因此几乎没有发生。

而且它有某些缺点:如果您不喜欢某一个区块生产者,请等待15秒等待下一个。

一旦链上有更复杂的应用程序,我们将面临挑战。 最优的tx包含,包括通过frontrunning(https://arxiv.org/abs/1904.05234)等捕获“矿工可提取的价值”,将会变得很复杂。

这为复杂的区块生产者带来了有风险的中心化。

对于这个问题,经过精心设计的“有限中心化”可以解决。

如果我们将共识分为两项工作:

  1. 选择将哪些tx进入区块(复杂,因此容易中心化)
  2. 用这些tx验证其他人的区块(例行工作因此更加去中心化)

当前的eth1-> eth2路线图中的* kinda *具有以下特征:eth2验证者必须明确注册才能成为“ eth1友好”的区块提议者。

提出区块的资源消耗更多,验证区块的资源消耗更少,区块验证者不必一定是区块提议者。

如果区块提议者存在中心化,那么给用户带来的风险要比验证者中心化小得多:即使90%的提议者是坏的(bad),他们能做的最糟糕的事情就是平均延迟10个区块时隙(〜2分钟)进行交易。 如果他们提出错误区块,验证者将忽略它们。

另一个更明确的例子是矿工可提取价值(MEV)拍卖。

基本上,在rollup中,每天一次将汇总并选择交易顺序的权利进行拍卖,例如出价最高的人。

这样就将规模经济繁重的中心化工作(tx挑选)与去中心化工作(tx验证)完全分开,并且还可以获取收入!

这具有有限的风险,因为任何人都可以直接将TX发布到链上,并强制将其包含在下一批区块中。

因此,一个区域集中并包含规模经济(并因此而中心化)的机制会耗尽周围区域的规模经济(并因此导致更多的去中心化)。”

接下来是Vitalik此前关于“完全去中心化”的好处的分享:

那些说“完全的去中心化(full decentralization)言过其实,你只需要做到非托管(non-custodial)就够了”的人没有抓住要点。一个完全去中心化(或“无服务器”)的应用是很有价值的,因为它让用户相信“这个应用会一直存在”,所有你可以安心地在这个应用之上进行创建。

这就是为什么。 Uniswap,Tornado Cash等之类的项目很容易激发人们在其周围建立生态系统,而更中心化的替代方法却失败了。

如果您在完全去中心化/无服务器的基础架构上构建dapp,则即使该基础架构周围的其他社区消失了,您的dapp也可以继续使用它。 由于网络效应较小,它可能会变得更弱,但仍然可以使用。

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